What is the Consumer Price Index (CPI)?
The Consumer Price Index (CPI) measures the average cost of essential goods and services that most people need to buy on a regular basis. It is expressed as a percentage to show how much prices have changed over a set period of time. The Consumer Price Index is essentially a measure of inflation, or deflation, if prices decrease. Consumers and financial regulators use this information to estimate the average cost of living in the United States.
While the CPI shows how much consumers pay for essential goods, the Producer Price Index (PPI) shows how much manufacturers pay to produce these items. If the CPI rises faster than the PPI, companies may be overcharging their customers or artificially inflating prices. In most cases, the PPI will rise and fall along with the CPI. If companies have to pay more to manufacture their goods, they will pass along the costs to their customers. Learn how the CPI is calculated and what it represents.
What Does the Consumer Price Index Measure?
The Consumer Price Index measures the weighted average of prices of a basket of goods and services sold in urban areas. It tracks how much consumers pay for various essential items. This includes all types of professionals, including self-employed and unemployed individuals. These figures are used to calculate how much prices have changed over time. Inflation is when prices rise and the country’s currency loses purchasing power, and deflation occurs when prices go down and the currency gains purchasing power. This information can help you understand how much you have to pay for essential items like housing, food, fuel, and transportation.
The CPI tracks the prices of goods and services across eight separate categories, including:
- Food and beverages
- Clothing and apparel
- Education and communication
- Medical care
- Miscellaneous goods and services
These prices are then averaged together to calculate the average CPI, which is associated with the cost of living. The CPI only includes how much the typical consumer pays for these goods and services in urban and suburban areas. It doesn’t track prices in rural areas or how much farmers and other exempt workers and individuals have to pay for basic goods and services, including individuals who are incarcerated, veterans, and the mentally ill.
It includes factors that are directly related to the cost of goods and services, such as sales tax, but it doesn’t include factors that aren’t linked, such as income tax and Social Security taxes. It also doesn’t include the average cost or rate of return on investments, including stocks, bonds, savings accounts, life insurance, and other assets that have no bearing on the average price of consumer goods and services.
How Is the Consumer Price Index Calculated?
The Consumer Price Index is calculated by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), which releases its findings monthly, quarterly, and annually. It is the most widely used indicator of the rate of inflation or deflation for all wage earners or clerical workers. The BLS contacts some 80,000 retailers in urban markets to see how much they are charging for these goods and services, including just about any company that sells directly to the public.
The CPI can also be calculated for a select category of goods and services, such as food, housing, and transportation. It can also be applied to a set geographic area, including the South, West, Midwest, and Northeast. The BLS also reports on three major urban areas, including Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL, Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA; and New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ.
The BLS has been reporting on the CPI since 1913. It is based on the index average of 100 and a CPI rating of 100, or 0%, which means that price levels are back to where they were in 1984. If prices rise to 200, or 100%, they would be twice what they were in 1984.
It uses the following equation to calculate the CPI for each product or item:
CPI = Cost of Market Basket in Given Year/Cost of Market Basket in Base Year X 100
How to Find the Consumer Price Index
You can find the CPI by visiting the BLS website. In most cases, economists will calculate the annual inflation rate by comparing the CPI year-over-year. Inflation typically rises at around 2% a year in the U.S., but it will be higher during times of rapid inflation. This is usually a sign that the economy is overheated and that consumer demand is high.
How Is the CPI Used Today?
The Consumer Price Index is used to calculate the rate of inflation and the average cost of living in urban areas. The government will then use this information to determine when or by how much to increase the monthly Social Security payment. The CPI can also affect eligibility for government programs, such as Medicaid or food stamps, or change the federal poverty level.
The Federal Reserve will also use this information to calculate the current state of the economy. The central bank will either raise or lower interest rates based on the rate of inflation.
You can also track the CPI to see how the state of the economy has changed. You may decide to spend more money when prices are low because your money will go further.
What Happens When the Consumer Price Index Rises?
The Consumer Price Index rises when the average prices of the basket of goods and services are high, which means you will have to spend more on the items you need every day. If the CPI is high, the Federal Reserve will likely raise interest rates to reduce demand for products and services, which may help slow the rate of inflation.
The Consumer Price Index may also affect your budget and personal lifestyle. If prices are high, you may need to reign in your spending to save money. If the CPI is low, you may have more money in the bank because you won’t have to spend as much on essential goods and services.
Economists and companies may also change their operations based on the current price index. If the CPI is high, consumers won’t have a lot of disposable income to spend on non-essential goods and services.
The CPI is an important tool that is used to track the current state of the economy, including how much the average wage earner has to pay for essential goods and services. Keep this information in mind to get a sense of how much you will spend on the items you use every day.